O Hall da Fama da Ciência

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Bem-vindo ao Hall da Fama da revista Science (The Science Hall of Fame), um panteão dos mais famosos cientistas dos últimos 200 anos. Esse banco de dados interativo usa uma medida objetiva e literal para mensurar a fama: a frequência com que os nomes completos dos cientistas aparecem em livros publicados entre 1800 e 2000. Esse é um exemplo de “culturomics” (consulte o artigo de Michel et al. na edição de 14 de janeiro de 2011).

Procure os cientistas pelo nome para ver o seu impacto em milliDarwins (mD): um milésimo da frequência média anual que o nome de Charles Darwin aparece em livros de língua inglesa a partir do ano em que tinha 30 anos (1839) até 2000. Leia também o artigo que introduz o Hall da Fama e explore os dados no site de apoio.

Ganhador do Nobel
Nome Completo
Nasc
Mort
milliDarwins
Bio
Quí
Fís
Bertrand Russell 1872 1970 1500
Charles Darwin 1809 1882 1000
Albert Einstein 1879 1955 878
Lewis Carroll 1832 1898 479
Claude Bernard 1813 1878 429
Oliver Lodge 1851 1940 394
Julian Huxley 1887 1975 350
Karl Pearson 1857 1936 346
Niels Bohr 1885 1962 289
Alexander Graham Bell 1847 1922 274
Max Planck 1858 1947 256
Francis Galton 1822 1911 255
Robert Oppenheimer 1904 1967 252
Louis Pasteur 1822 1895 237
Chaim Weizmann 1874 1952 236
Alfred North Whitehead 1861 1947 229
Marie Curie 1867 1934 189
Robert Koch 1843 1910 185
Isaac Asimov 1920 1992 183
James Jeans 1877 1946 182
Ray Lankester 1847 1929 175
Stephen Jay Gould 1941 2002 169
Norbert Wiener 1894 1964 163
Rachel Carson 1907 1964 152
Carl Sagan 1934 1996 152
Konrad Lorenz 1903 1989 148
Linus Pauling 1901 1994 146
Theobald Smith 1859 1934 145
Joseph Needham 1900 1995 138
John von Neumann 1903 1957 137
Norman Lockyer 1836 1920 136
Edward Teller 1908 2003 134
Patrick Geddes 1854 1932 133
Alfred Russel Wallace 1823 1913 125
Balfour Stewart 1828 1887 124
Andrei Sakharov 1921 1989 116
Ernst Mach 1838 1916 113
Paul Bert 1833 1886 112
Barry Commoner 1917 109
Pierre Curie 1859 1906 108
Henri Poincare 1854 1912 108
Ernst Haeckel 1834 1919 106
Raymond Pearl 1879 1940 104
Ernest Rutherford 1871 1937 103
Thomas Henry Huxley 1825 1895 102
Jacques Loeb 1859 1924 101
Michael Polanyi 1891 1976 99
Alexander Agassiz 1835 1910 98
William Beebe 1877 1962 98
Alexis Carrel 1873 1944 98
Ronald Ross 1857 1932 98
Vandana Shiva 1952 94
James Clerk Maxwell 1831 1879 92
Richard Dawkins 1941 90
Desmond Morris 1928 90
Evelyn Fox Keller 1936 89
Alfred Nobel 1833 1896 89
Stephen Hawking 1942 88
Max Born 1882 1970 84
Klaus Fuchs 1911 1988 84
Garrett Hardin 1915 2003 84
Gregor Mendel 1822 1884 84
John Money 1921 2006 84
Simon Newcomb 1835 1909 82
Jane Goodall 1934 81
Fritjof Capra 1939 80
Heinrich Hertz 1857 1894 80
David Bohm 1917 1992 78
Osborne Reynolds 1842 1912 78
Rene Dubos 1901 1982 76
Guglielmo Marconi 1874 1937 76
Charles Sanders Peirce 1839 1914 75
Paul Davies 1946 73
Max Schultze 1825 1874 73
Claire Deville 1818 1881 72
Warren Weaver 1894 1978 72
Irving Langmuir 1881 1957 71
Carlos Castaneda 1925 1998 69
Fang Lizhi 1936 69
Amory Lovins 1947 69
Abdus Salam 1926 1996 69
Leo Szilard 1898 1964 68
Francis Crick 1916 2004 67
Elizur Wright 1804 1885 67
Ernst Mayr 1904 2005 64
Louis de Broglie 1892 1987 62
Benjamin Peirce 1809 1880 62
Lancelot Hogben 1895 1975 61
Chauncey Wright 1830 1875 61
Paul Sabatier 1854 1941 60
Nikola Tesla 1856 1943 60
Sewall Wright 1889 1988 58
Otto Hahn 1879 1968 56
Charles Richet 1850 1935 55
James Bryant Conant 1893 1978 54
George Mivart 1827 1900 54
George Darwin 1845 1912 53
Henri Becquerel 1852 1908 52
Henry Head 1861 1940 51
Paul de Kruif 1890 1971 51
Wilhelm Ostwald 1853 1932 51
Rudolf Virchow 1821 1902 51
Gerald Holton 1922 50
Alfred Kinsey 1894 1956 50
Sally Ride 1951 50
Herman Daly 1938 48
Joshua Lederberg 1925 2008 48
Lise Meitner 1878 1968 48
Erwin Schrodinger 1887 1961 48
Almroth Wright 1861 1947 48
Michael Dummett 1925 47
Richard Feynman 1918 1988 47
Mario Bunge 1919 46
Theodosius Dobzhansky 1900 1975 46
Frederick Mosteller 1916 2006 46
Claude Shannon 1916 2001 46
Frederick Soddy 1877 1956 46
Scott Blair 1902 1987 44
Hans Driesch 1867 1941 44
Charles Sherrington 1857 1954 44
Charles Wheatstone 1802 1875 44
Henry Dale 1875 1968 43
Maurice Ewing 1906 1974 43
Willy Ley 1906 1969 43
Michael Sars 1805 1869 42
William Shockley 1910 1989 41
Hugo de Vries 1848 1935 41
Arthur Compton 1892 1962 40
Gottlob Frege 1848 1925 40
Kurt Godel 1906 1978 40
Louis Guttman 1916 1987 40
Hermann von Helmholtz 1821 1894 40
Lecoq de Boisbaudran 1838 1912 39
Jacques Cousteau 1910 1997 39
Felix Klein 1849 1925 39
Alfred Wegener 1880 1930 39
Hermann Weyl 1885 1955 39
Ludwig von Bertalanffy 1901 1972 38
Oliver Heaviside 1850 1925 38
Steven Weinberg 1933 38
George Boole 1815 1864 37
Martin Deutsch 1917 2002 37
Freeman Dyson 1923 37
Justus von Liebig 1803 1873 37
Peter Medawar 1915 1987 37
Steven Rose 1938 37
August Weismann 1834 1914 37
Frank Jewett 1879 1949 36
Alfred Newton 1829 1907 36
Wilhelm Roux 1850 1924 36
Svante Arrhenius 1859 1927 35
William Bateson 1861 1926 35
Lynn Margulis 1938 35
Reinhold Messner 1944 35
Thomas Hunt Morgan 1866 1945 35
Fritz Haber 1868 1934 34
Zhores Medvedev 1925 34
Roger Penrose 1931 34
Ilya Prigogine 1917 2003 34
Philip Morrison 1915 2005 33
Harold Urey 1893 1981 33
George Wald 1906 1997 33
David Baltimore 1938 32
Carey Foster 1835 1919 32
Ira Remsen 1846 1927 32
Ludwig Mond 1839 1909 31
William Vogt 1902 1968 31
Ludwig Boltzmann 1844 1906 30
Bierens de Haan 1883 1958 30
William Rowan Hamilton 1805 1865 30
Barbara McClintock 1902 1992 30
Alfred Tarski 1902 1983 30
Henry Tizard 1885 1959 30
Georg Cantor 1845 1918 29
Howard Florey 1898 1968 29
Harold Jeffreys 1891 1989 29
Oldfield Thomas 1858 1929 29
Bentley Glass 1906 2005 28
David Hilbert 1862 1943 28
Glenn Seaborg 1912 1999 28
Solly Zuckerman 1904 1993 28
Walter Cannon 1871 1945 27
Harold Hotelling 1895 1973 27
Karl Landsteiner 1868 1943 27
Jean Perrin 1870 1942 27
Lobry de Bruyn 1857 1904 26
Niles Eldredge 1943 26
Rosalind Franklin 1920 1958 26
Casimir Funk 1884 1967 26
Henry Margenau 1901 1997 26
Frank Press 1924 26
Marston Bates 1906 1974 25
Richard Bellman 1920 1984 25
Florian Cajori 1859 1930 25
Harvey Fletcher 1884 1981 25
Dian Fossey 1932 1985 25
Edmund Heller 1875 1939 25
Francois Jacob 1920 25
James Lovelock 1919 25
Fritz Muller 1821 1897 25